Shortness of breath
The most important cardiac causes are:
- Narrowed or blocked coronary arteries.
- Weakened heart muscle.
- Heart valve problems.
- Increased pressure in the lung circulation (Pulmonary hypertension).
- Diseases of the pericardium (the membrane surrounding the heart).
Exact differentiation could be achieved by proper investigation, especially by careful ultrasound examination of the heart (echocardiography).